The perception of tooth color is the result of a complex interaction of factors such as: lighting conditions, translucency, opacity, light scattering, gloss, the human eye and brain.[1] Teeth are composed of a surface enamel layer, which is whiter and semitransparent, and an underlying dentin layer, which is darker and less transparent. These are calcified, hard tissues comparable to bone. The natural shade of teeth is best considered as such; an off-white, bone-color rather than pure white. Public opinion of what is normal tooth shade tends to be distorted. Portrayals of cosmetically enhanced teeth are common in the media. In one report, the most common tooth shade in the general population ranged from A1 to A3 on the VITA classical A1-D4 shade guide.[2]
The information in this 14-module syllabus is intended (1) to meet academic requirements for Dental Students, Dental Hygiene Students, and Dental Assistant Students related to clinical pharmacology; (2) to provide a framework for an in-service training program in oral healthcare settings; and (3) to serve as a resource for oral healthcare personnel wishing to review evidence-based information on specific topics related to clinical pharmacology. A PDF is also available for each of the modules that may serve as a convenient chairside resource. Dental Implants on the NHS WARNING

Dr. Steve Horne began his career at Brigham Young University obtaining his BA in English. He earned his doctorate of dental surgery in 2007 from the University of Southern California where his pursuit for academic excellence landed him on the dean's list. He was recognized for his superior clinical skills and invited to help teach other dental students in courses on restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, and tooth anatomy. During dental school, he provided dental care for underserved populations of Los Angeles and Orange County, Mexico, and Costa Rica with the international volunteer organization AYUDA. After graduation from USC, Dr. Horne entered active duty with the U.S. Army and practiced dentistry at Fort Knox, Kentucky, for four years. During this time, in 2010, he was deployed as part of a medical unit to Baghdad, Iraq, to provide dental and triage support to military and civilian workers who were involved in the effort there. During his military service, he received multiple Army Achievement Medals, the Army Commendation Medal, and served as company commander. After leaving the Army in 2011, Dr. Horne joined a private practice in La Jolla, Calif., and became credentialed with Scripps Memorial Hospital La Jolla as a dental consultant. Health and education are of paramount importance to Dr. Horne, and since 2012, he has been writing dental articles for MedicineNet and WebMD to provide accurate information about oral health to the public. He is a member of the American Dental Association (ADA), Academy of General Dentistry (AGD), California Dental Association (CDA), and the San Diego County Dental Society and American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD). He is a preferred provider with Invisalign and spends countless hours each year pursuing continuing education in order to maintain a standard of excellence in dentistry. Dr. Horne has been married for 15 years to his wife, Christy. They have 3-year-old twins, Camille and Trent, and very recently welcomed their third child, Colette Elise, on July 6! The heart and soul of the family is Roscoe, their chocolate Labrador. Dental Implants North London Exceptional 5 Star Review by David F.


The cornerstone of successful periodontal treatment starts with establishing excellent oral hygiene. This includes twice-daily brushing with daily flossing. Also, the use of an interdental brush is helpful if space between the teeth allows. For smaller spaces, products such as narrow picks with soft rubber bristles provide excellent manual cleaning. Persons with dexterity problems, such as arthritis, may find oral hygiene to be difficult and may require more frequent professional care and/or the use of a powered toothbrush. Persons with periodontitis must realize it is a chronic inflammatory disease and a lifelong regimen of excellent hygiene and professional maintenance care with a dentist/hygienist or periodontist is required to maintain affected teeth.
Experience the power of light-activated teeth whitening in the comfort of your own home and get a whiter smile like never before. Teeth whitening lights are proven to help whiten faster and have been used for decades in dental practices across the country. Finally, you can use the same LED light-activated technology without paying a fortune at the dentist!  

london lumineers


The term oral cancer includes cancer of the mouth (oral cavity) and the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Red and white patches inside the mouth, bleeding, loose teeth, pain upon swallowing, a lump in the neck, earache, and a sore on your lip or in your mouth that won't heal are all symptoms of oral cancer. Treatment for oral cancer depends upon the staging of the disease and usually involves surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Cost of Dental Implants HIDDEN DANGERS

Diabetes appears to exacerbates the onset, progression, and severity of periodontitis.[43] Although the majority of research has focused on type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes appears to have an identical effect on the risk for periodontitis.[44] The extent of the increased risk of periodontitis is dependent on the level of glycaemic control. Therefore, in well managed diabetes there seems to be a small effect of diabetes on the risk for periodontitis. However, the risk increases exponentially as glycaemic control worsens.[44] Overall, the increased risk of periodontitis in diabetics is estimated to be between 2-3 times higher.[43] So far, the mechanisms underlying the link are not fully understood, but it’s known to involve aspects of inflammation, immune functioning, neutrophil activity, and cytokine biology.[44][45]

Dentist Russell Square


Ballwin Dental Care is a family owned dental practice serving West County for over 40 years. Dr. Kimberly Simonds, Dr. Dan Gennaoui and Dr. John McCarthy will provide you and your entire family with the latest in preventive, restorative, and cosmetic dentistry in Ballwin, serving the Manchester, Valley Park, Ellisville, Wildwood, and Chesterfield communities as well. Our modern office is dedicated to meeting you and your family’s dental needs with the latest technology and the greatest care. Cheap Dental Implants - how to save money in London

Going in to see Dr. K and my awesome hygienist is such a positive experience. I don’t feel like I’m in any type of sterile healthcare facility when I’m there. Instead, I actually feel like I’m around family. And I’ve only been twice. Both Dr. K and my hygienist are so kind and positive and attentive. They explain everything so nicely to me, and without a shadow of a doubt, I can tell the… Dentist London - Where can I find a good dentist? (London, UK)
Advanced gum disease is called periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis affects 47.2% of adults over 30 in the United States. It can lead to the loss of tissue and bone that support the teeth and it may become more severe over time. If it does, your teeth will feel loose and start moving around in your mouth. This is the most common form of periodontitis in adults but can occur at any age. It usually gets worse slowly, but there can be periods of rapid progression. Teeth Whitening at Dental Smiles London
The over-the-counter products are weaker. That means less active whitening but also less risk to the gums, should the whitening agent come in contact. "All of the products are safe if used as directed," Messina says. Still, they can increase sensitivity of teeth and they can irritate gum tissue. "Anything that doesn't feel right, you should see your dentist."
Here at Dental Care at Crystal Park, we utilize the most advanced, up-to-date technology in order to diagnose and treat dental problems with the highest level of accuracy and effectiveness. You no longer have to deal with time-consuming, uncomfortable traditional dental x-rays. Instead, at Dental Care at Crystal Park we use non-invasive, painless equipment to instantly produce high-resolution dental images that allow our dentist to identify problems such as tooth decay, worn enamel, gum disease, or micro-fractures that would normally remain undetectable and untreated.

Dentist in Russell Square


^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Pjetursson, B. E.; Thoma, D.; Jung, R.; Zwahlen, M.; Zembic, A. (2012). "A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) after a mean observation period of at least 5 years". Clinical Oral Implants Research. 23: 22–38. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2012.02546.x. PMID 23062125. Aesthetic Dentistry MSc | King's College London
While the primary function of dental implants is for teeth replacement, there are areas in which implants can assist in other dental procedures. Due to their stability, dental implants can be used to support a removable denture and provide a more secure and comfortable fit. In addition, for orthodontics procedures, dental mini-implants can act as temporary anchorage devices (TAD) to help move teeth to a desired position. These mini-implants are small and temporarily fixed to bone while assisting in anchorage for teeth movement. They are subsequently removed after their function has been served.

puresmile dental care finchley


The severity and speed of progression of periodontitis depends upon the balance of a number of factors: the number and type of bacteria present, how strong the individual’s defence mechanisms are, and the presence or absence of certain risk factors. For example, the more aggressive the bacteria and the weaker the immune response of the patient, the more active will be the disease. Added to that, some risk factors, such as smoking or diabetes, can further weaken the body’s defences and speed up the disease process. In the same way, certain drugs, such as antihypertensive or vasodilating agents and immunotherapy, affect the inflammatory response to plaque and make patients more susceptible to gingivitis. However, it is important to recognize that, without the accumulation of bacterial plaque, periodontitis will not occur.
The best way to preserve your whitening results is to avoid stain causing products such as coffee, red wine, and dark colas. If skipping your morning coffee is too difficult, just remember to avoid brushing your teeth or using whiteners right after — it can do more harm than good. Acidic food and drinks soften your teeth, and Dr. Sanda Moldovan, DDS recommended, swishing with water “to lessen stains and prevent demineralization of teeth which causes sensitivity.” Kings Dental Clinic Patient's Testimonial-2-Dental Experts in London (Hammersmith-Olympia)
Periodontal disease damages these tissues and bones supporting the tooth, leaving open spaces around the teeth known as ‘pockets’. The larger these pockets are, the easier it is for bacteria to collect inside them, causing more bone and tissue loss. Without treatment, the supportive structure degrades to the point that the tooth either falls out or needs to be removed.

braces in london


Nothing replaces your natural teeth, but dental implants can come close. Implants have been used for many years. They are man-made “anchors” that look like screws and are made of titanium and other materials that are compatible with the human body. The single tooth implant is placed by surgery in the upper or lower jaw, where it replaces your missing tooth’s root(s). Cost of Dental Implants HIDDEN DANGERS

Nearly half the initial change in color provided by an intensive in-office treatment (i.e., 1 hour treatment in a dentist's chair) may be lost in seven days.[42] Rebound is experienced when a large proportion of the tooth whitening has come from tooth dehydration (also a significant factor in causing sensitivity).[43] As the tooth rehydrates, tooth color "rebounds", back toward where it started.[44] King's Dental Institute - High performance with humanity

The information and content (collectively, "Content") on this website is for your general educational information only. The Content cannot, and is not intended to, replace the relationship that you have with your health care professionals. The Content on this website is not medical advice. You should always talk to your health care professionals for information concerning diagnosis and treatment, including information regarding which drugs or treatment may be appropriate for you. None of the information on this website represents or warrants that any particular drug or treatment is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Health information changes quickly. Therefore, it is always best to confirm information with your health care professionals.

emergency dentist in london


Hydrogen peroxide is an irritant and cytotoxic. At concentrations of 10% or higher, hydrogen peroxide is potentially corrosive to mucous membranes or skin and can cause a burning sensation and tissue damage.[41] Chemical burns from gel bleaching (if a high-concentration oxidising agent contacts unprotected tissues, which may bleach or discolor mucous membranes). Tissue irritation most commonly results from an ill-fitting mouthpiece tray rather than the tooth-bleaching agent.
Professional dental cleaning. During a typical checkup your dentist or dental hygienist will remove the plaque and tartar (plaque that builds up and hardens on the tooth surface and can only be removed with professional cleaning) from above and below the gum line of all teeth. If you have some signs of gum disease, your dentist may recommend professional dental cleaning more than twice-a-year. Dental cleanings are not a treatment for active gum disease. They are, though, an important preventive measure that can help you stave off its development.
Español: tratar las enfermedades de las encías con remedios caseros, Português: Tratar Doenças Na Gengiva Com Remédios Caseiros, Italiano: Trattare Disturbi alle Gengive con Rimedi Casalinghi, Deutsch: Zahnfleischentzündung mit Hausmitteln behandeln, Русский: лечить заболевания десен домашними средствами, Français: traiter les maladies des gencives avec des remèdes maison, 中文: 自己治疗牙龈疾病, Nederlands: Tandvleesproblemen aanpakken met huismiddeltjes, Čeština: Jak podomácku léčit onemocnění dásní, Bahasa Indonesia: Mengobati Penyakit Gusi dengan Rawatan Rumah, العربية: معالجة أمراض اللثة بعلاجات منزلية, हिन्दी: मसूड़ों की बीमारी का इलाज करें (Home Remedies, Gharelu Nuskhe), ไทย: รักษาโรคเหงือกด้วยตัวคุณเองที่บ้าน, Tiếng Việt: Chữa bệnh nướu bằng nguyên liệu tại nhà, 한국어: 가정 요법으로 잇몸 질환 다스리는 법, 日本語: 歯ぐきの病気を家で治療する, Türkçe: Ev Yapımı Çözümlerle Diş Eti Hastalıkları Nasıl Tedavi Edilir Welcome to UCL Eastman Dental Institute

Your first step in treating periodontitis is a conservative, nonsurgical treatment called scaling and root planing (SRP). A dentist or dental hygienist provides this treatment by scraping and removing the plaque and tartar off of your teeth and root surfaces by scaling, and then smoothing away any roughness on the roots to prevent bacteria from gathering again. According to Nevada-based dentist, Dr. Maria Perrone, SRP may take more than one visit and a local anesthetic can be used to prevent any discomfort. After this process, the gums will heal and reattach themselves to the healthy, clean surfaces of the teeth. Within a few weeks, your dentist will evaluate your healing and decide if further treatment is necessary. Dentists london
We pride ourselves as being one of the top dental offices in Nashville, Tennessee, for patients who are experiencing a dental emergency. If you call today, you can be seen today at one of our four locations, whether you are an existing patient or are looking for a new dental home. Prepare yourself to hear “Yes, we can see you today” from your dentist again. Brighton Implant Clinic - Cheap Dental Implants
Eat more vitamin C-rich foods. It's not just lemons that can help with gum disease, but also other foods full of vitamin C such as oranges, grapes, guava, kiwi mango, papaya, bell peppers, and strawberry. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, and antioxidants are found to promote connective tissue growth and bone regeneration, which can be affected by various gum problems. Dental Recruitment in Australia & New Zealand
Dental implants are surgically placed in your jawbone, where they serve as the roots of missing teeth. Because the titanium in the implants fuses with your jawbone, the implants won't slip, make noise or cause bone damage the way fixed bridgework or dentures might. And the materials can't decay like your own teeth that support regular bridgework can. Dental Implants Coventry Dentists Show Best Same Day Full Whole Mouth Dental Teeth Implants Verum UK
There is no hiding the fact that dental implants are expensive. Single tooth dental implant treatments range from $1500 to $7500. When attempting to explain why they are so expensive it is necessary to understand that the consumer is not buying a product but rather a service. It is very easy to forget this fact when price shopping. Dental implants are “medical devices” implanted into living tissue. This living tissue also is home to nerves, blood vessels and sinuses. The placement of dental implants is both art and science. Dental Implant Patient from London, UK - (Dental Implant Without A Surgery) - 28/11/2016

While the effects of whitening can last quite a while (months to years), depending on diet and other habits (like smoking!), the stains on teeth will eventually return. Some dentists may recommend maintaining a freshly whitened smile with a professional home whitening kit. These kits include custom made trays to fit your teeth and tubes of whitening gel that has a lower concentration of bleaching agents than the in-office variety. The patient lines the trays with the gel and wears them for a few hours at a time each day or while sleeping. The Cost Of Dental Implants Might Surprise You 2018

According to research, gum disease affects 3 out of every 4 adults over the age of 35 in the UK. About 15% of the population appear to suffer from more severe forms of the disease, which caused rapid loss of supporting bone. This group appears to be at greatest risk of losing teeth through periodontal disease caused by the toxins produced by bacteria which regularly collect on the teeth.
Messiness aside, the Plus White kit is easy to use. Included are two trays, the whitening gel and a post-whitening rinse. Just brush your teeth with plain water, fill the trays with gel, put them on your teeth for 5 to 20 minutes, then rinse. Users agree with the testers at Reviews.com, saying they noticed whiter teeth pretty quickly, and they became even whiter over the treatment time of 14 days. UK Dental Clinic, Root Canal Treatment & Tooth Cap

Treatment involves good oral hygiene and regular professional teeth cleaning.[3] Recommended oral hygiene include daily brushing and flossing.[3] In certain cases antibiotics or dental surgery may be recommended.[6] Globally 538 million people were estimated to be affected in 2015.[4] In the United States nearly half of those over the age of 30 are affected to some degree, and about 70% of those over 65 have the condition.[3] Males are affected more often than females.[3]


A healthy mouth is colonized by more than 700 different species of bacteria, most of which are completely harmless and live in harmony with their host. However, when tooth cleaning is not thorough enough, the bacterial deposits build up next to the gums, forming a plaque, and the conditions become suitable for more dangerous bacteria to flourish. The natural defences of the body are also compromised. Dental Implants Coventry Dentists Show Best Same Day Full Whole Mouth Dental Teeth Implants Verum UK

Supervised vs. unsupervised process. First, your dentist can perform an oral exam and consider your complete medical history, which can be helpful in determining if bleaching is an appropriate course of treatment based on the type and extent of stains, and the number and location of restorations. Your dentist can then better match the type of stain with the best treatment, if appropriate, to lighten those stains. Best Affordable Dental Implants at Synergy Dental Clinic in Blackpool UK
Immediately after whitening (regardless of the product you use), your teeth are more susceptible to restaining. The pores in your teeth are slightly more open and can more easily allow stains in. Smile Brilliant and dentist professionals recommend whitening before bed as it reduces the opportunity for staining and gives your teeth the night to begin rehydrating and remineralizing. To speed up the remineralizing process, Smile Brilliant offers fluoride infused desensitizing gel to nourish and replenish. Dental Implant Patient from London, UK - 15/09/2016
Once you are done, you can rinse the gel off your teeth and clean the light and the dental trays. The suggested treatment plan for the best results is 5 to 15 minutes per day, but it is not clear how many treatments should be completed in total. It also isn’t clear how many treatments this kit can give. Having said that, with results seen as quickly as after the first use, you probably won’t run out too quickly. Dentist Islington twin Sterilisation rooms and best dental care professional.MOV
Attention A T users. To access the menus on this page please perform the following steps. 1. Please switch auto forms mode to off. 2. Hit enter to expand a main menu option (Health, Benefits, etc). 3. To enter and activate the submenu links, hit the down arrow. You will now be able to tab or arrow up or down through the submenu options to access/activate the submenu links.

london dentures


Strength of bleaching agent. Over-the-counter products and dentist-supervised at-home products usually contain a lower strength bleaching agent, with about a 10% to 22% carbamide peroxide content, which is equivalent to about 3% hydrogen peroxide. In-office, professionally applied tooth whitening products contain hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 15% to 43%.

Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots with metal, screwlike posts and replaces damaged or missing teeth with artificial teeth that look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures or bridgework that doesn't fit well and can offer an option when a lack of natural teeth roots don't allow building denture or bridgework tooth replacements. Find a Dentist in Louisville KY, Cosmetic, TMJ, Implants top3d


Your dentist or periodontist is able to perform most procedures in his or her office. The time needed to perform the procedure, your degree of discomfort, and time needed to heal will vary from patient to patient depending on the type and extent of the procedure and your overall health. Local anesthesia to numb the treatment area may be given before some treatments. If necessary, a medication may be given to help you relax.

cosmetic dentists london


Knowing which emergency dental office to contact when experiencing dental pain is essential when it comes to relieving your symptoms. Whether you’re suffering from a toothache or noticing irritation when wearing your braces, the emergency dentists in Virginia Beach can help. At our dental office we offer comprehensive emergency dental care in a welcoming, compassionate environment during normal office hours. We’ll diagnose the problem quickly and recommend a treatment plan that addresses your symptoms. Please call us today to book an appointment. In many cases, we are able to schedule urgent dental care patients the same day.

Dentist in Bloomsbury


The low pH of bleach opens up dentinal tubules and may result in dentine hypersensitivity, bringing about hypersensitive teeth.[35] It manifests as increased sensitivity to stimuli such as hot, cold or sweet. 67 – 78% of the patients experience teeth sensitivity after in office bleaching with hydrogen peroxide in combination with heat.[36][37] Sensitivity of teeth can persist up to 4 days after teeth bleaching cessation.[38][39] However, it varies from person to person. A longer duration of hypersensitivity has been reported 39 days post-bleaching.[39] Dental Implant For Front Tooth (London, UK)
To better serve you, we stay up to date with advanced dental technologies and appliances like: Invisalign® (clear braces), intraoral cameras, the ZOOM Teeth Whitening system, and digital X-rays. Another piece of equipment we utilize is the Wand®, a computerized anesthetic delivery system that is more comfortable and less frightening for you and your family than an old-fashioned shot. We also have flat screen televisions in each treatment room so you can enjoy watching a movie during your dental procedure. Saturday and evening hours available and we offer a variety of payment options, including an interest-free plan through Ballwin Dental CareCredit. Call us today if you would like to schedule an appointment. Teeth Whitening in Camden London
Generally, dental implants are not covered by dental insurance. However, more companies are covering dental implants today than they did ten years ago. In many cases, your insurance can help pay for the teeth that are placed on the dental implants, if not the implants themselves. You can call your dental insurance provider and ask if dental implants are a covered procedure. Dental Implants Cost - Affordable vs. Expensive
The formula is safe for your tooth enamel and the tooth guard is a comfortable fit. Wear it for just 10 – 30 minutes per day, for up to 10 days and you will see your staining and discoloration disappear. You don’t need to wait around at the bathroom mirror either; the hands-free tooth guard design means you can treat your teeth while watching television – just wait for the timer to go off when you’re done! Dental Implants London - WATCH WARNING

The first thing to do is visit your dental team for a thorough check-up of your teeth and gums. They will measure the 'cuff' of gum around each tooth to see if there is any sign that periodontal disease has started.  X-rays may also be needed to see the amount of bone that has been lost. This assessment is very important, so the correct treatment can be prescribed for you. Dental Implants in London
×